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Configurare AP Wifi con connessione GSM

Posted: Wed Aug 21, 2019 6:36 am
by ita01
Buongiorno a tutti, sono nuovo di questo forum e non molto esperto nella creazione e gestione di reti.
Scrivo in questa sezione perché non me la cavo molto bene con l'inglese.
Vorrei realizzare un access point che mi permetta di condividere la connessione GSM del mio Raspberry Pi 3 (sul quale gira
Raspbian Buster Lite, versione 2019-07-10) con altri dispositivi WiFi. Per connettermi al Raspberry anche via internet, inoltre, sto usando Hamachi.
Ho collegato il Raspberry a una scheda Waveshare SIM7600E-H, che sono riuscito a configurare e connettere a internet. Anche Hamachi è configurato e funziona correttamente.
Il problema è nella creazione dell'access point WiFi, dato che sono riuscito a rendere visibile la rete creata dal Raspberry, ma non riesco a collegarvici utilmente alcun dispositivo (un computer Windows 10 riesce a connettersi, ma mi dà un indirizzo IP "strano" e nessuna connessione né al Rasspberry, né a internet; gli smarphone Android invece non si collegano proprio e mi ripetono continuamente "Acquisizione indirizzo IP...").
Dopo essere riuscito a configurare la connessione a internet del modem e la connessione Hamachi, per la creazione dell'access point ho seguito inizialmente questa guida: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentati ... s-point.md modificando i riferimenti a eth0 con wwan0.
Non essendo riuscito a far funzionare l'AP, ho iniziato a fare altre modifiche nella configurazione, attingendo da diverse altre guide e sperando sempre di non aver aumentato i danni. Con alcune impostazioni ho persino perso la connessione a internet del modem, ma sono riuscito a correggere questi errori.

Per permettervi di aiutarmi, vi posto il risultato di alcuni comandi (tutti dati da utente root):

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brctl show br0
bridge name	bridge id		STP enabled	interfaces
br0		8000.b827eb828b19	no		wlan0
=====-----=====
brctl showstp br0
br0
 bridge id		8000.b827eb828b19
 designated root	8000.b827eb828b19
 root port		   0			path cost		   0
 max age		  20.00			bridge max age		  20.00
 hello time		   2.00			bridge hello time	   2.00
 forward delay		  15.00			bridge forward delay	  15.00
 ageing time		 300.00
 hello timer		   0.00			tcn timer		   0.00
 topology change timer	   0.00			gc timer		 227.94
 flags			


wlan0 (1)
 port id		8001			state		     forwarding
 designated root	8000.b827eb828b19	path cost		 100
 designated bridge	8000.b827eb828b19	message age timer	   0.00
 designated port	8001			forward delay timer	   0.00
 designated cost	   0			hold timer		   0.00
 flags			

=====-----=====
brctl showmacs br0
port no	mac addr		is local?	ageing timer
  1	b8:27:eb:82:8b:19	yes		   0.00
=====-----=====
ifconfig
br0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.4.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.4.255
        inet6 fe80::f037:7a4d:b670:f13  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether b8:27:eb:82:8b:19  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 24  bytes 2998 (2.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

eth0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether b8:27:eb:d7:de:4c  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

ham0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1404
        inet 25.102.234.249  netmask 255.0.0.0  broadcast 25.255.255.255
        inet6 fe80::7879:19ff:fe66:eaf9  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        inet6 2620:9b::1966:eaf9  prefixlen 96  scopeid 0x0<global>
        inet6 fe80::6837:eff:83b4:5fb8  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 7a:79:19:66:ea:f9  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13127  bytes 1219775 (1.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 1046  bytes 385972 (376.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 153  bytes 11896 (11.6 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153  bytes 11896 (11.6 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

wlan0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.4.2  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.4.255
        ether b8:27:eb:82:8b:19  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 40  bytes 5392 (5.2 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

wwan0: flags=4305<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,NOARP,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 1.172.141.19  netmask 255.255.255.248  destination 1.172.141.19
        unspec 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  txqueuelen 1000  (UNSPEC)
        RX packets 13397  bytes 2088014 (1.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 1318  bytes 463653 (452.7 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

=====-----=====
ipmaddr
1:	lo
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
2:	eth0
	link  33:33:00:00:00:01
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:01
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
4:	wlan0
	link  33:33:00:00:00:01
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:01
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:fb
	inet  224.0.0.251
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
5:	br0
	link  33:33:00:00:00:01
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:01
	link  33:33:ff:70:0f:13
	link  33:33:00:00:00:fb
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:fb
	inet  224.0.0.251
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::fb
	inet6 ff02::1:ff70:f13
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
7:	wwan0
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
8:	ham0
	link  33:33:00:00:00:01
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:01
	link  33:33:ff:66:ea:f9
	link  01:00:5e:00:00:fb
	link  33:33:00:00:00:fb
	link  33:33:ff:b4:5f:b8
	inet  224.0.0.251
	inet  224.0.0.1
	inet6 ff02::1:ffb4:5fb8
	inet6 ff02::fb
	inet6 ff02::1:ff66:eaf9 users 2
	inet6 ff02::1
	inet6 ff01::1
=====-----=====
ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether b8:27:eb:d7:de:4c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
4: wlan0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether b8:27:eb:82:8b:19 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.4.2/24 brd 192.168.4.255 scope global noprefixroute wlan0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
5: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether b8:27:eb:82:8b:19 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.4.1/24 brd 192.168.4.255 scope global noprefixroute br0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::f037:7a4d:b670:f13/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
7: wwan0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/none 
    inet 1.172.141.19/29 scope global wwan0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
8: ham0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1404 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 7a:79:19:66:ea:f9 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 25.102.234.249/8 brd 25.255.255.255 scope global ham0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 169.254.232.22/16 brd 169.254.255.255 scope global noprefixroute ham0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 2620:9b::1966:eaf9/96 scope global 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::6837:eff:83b4:5fb8/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::7879:19ff:fe66:eaf9/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
=====-----=====
netstat -tupl
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:domain          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      538/dnsmasq         
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:ssh             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      551/sshd            
tcp6       0      0 [::]:ftp                [::]:*                  LISTEN      625/proftpd: (accep 
tcp6       0      0 [::]:domain             [::]:*                  LISTEN      538/dnsmasq         
tcp6       0      0 [::]:ssh                [::]:*                  LISTEN      551/sshd            
udp        0      0 1-172-141-19.dyna:39456 0.0.0.0:*                           902/hamachid        
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:domain          0.0.0.0:*                           538/dnsmasq         
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:bootps          0.0.0.0:*                           538/dnsmasq         
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:bootpc          0.0.0.0:*                           479/dhcpcd          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:52809           0.0.0.0:*                           902/hamachid        
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:56964           0.0.0.0:*                           366/avahi-daemon: r 
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:mdns            0.0.0.0:*                           366/avahi-daemon: r 
udp6       0      0 [::]:domain             [::]:*                              538/dnsmasq         
udp6       0      0 [::]:56376              [::]:*                              366/avahi-daemon: r 
udp6       0      0 [::]:mdns               [::]:*                              366/avahi-daemon: r 
=====-----=====
netstat -rn
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags   MSS Window  irtt Iface
0.0.0.0         1.172.141.20    0.0.0.0         UG        0 0          0 wwan0
0.0.0.0         0.0.0.0         0.0.0.0         U         0 0          0 ham0
1.172.141.16    0.0.0.0         255.255.255.248 U         0 0          0 wwan0
25.0.0.0        0.0.0.0         255.0.0.0       U         0 0          0 ham0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U         0 0          0 ham0
192.168.4.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U         0 0          0 br0
192.168.4.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U         0 0          0 wlan0
=====-----=====
ip route show
default via 1.172.141.20 dev wwan0 
default dev ham0 scope link src 169.254.232.22 metric 208 
1.172.141.16/29 dev wwan0 proto kernel scope link src 1.172.141.19 
25.0.0.0/8 dev ham0 proto kernel scope link src 25.102.234.249 
169.254.0.0/16 dev ham0 scope link src 169.254.232.22 metric 208 
192.168.4.0/24 dev br0 proto dhcp scope link src 192.168.4.1 metric 205 
192.168.4.0/24 dev wlan0 proto dhcp scope link src 192.168.4.2 metric 304 
=====-----=====
netstat -ln --tcp
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State      
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:53              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 :::21                   :::*                    LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 :::53                   :::*                    LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN     
=====-----=====
netstat -l --inet
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State      
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:domain          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:ssh             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
udp        0      0 1-172-141-19.dyna:39456 0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:domain          0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:bootps          0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:bootpc          0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:52809           0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:56964           0.0.0.0:*                          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:mdns            0.0.0.0:*                          
raw        0      0 0.0.0.0:icmp            0.0.0.0:*               7          
=====-----=====
iptables -L -n
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
=====-----=====
ip neigh
25.66.200.16 dev ham0 lladdr 7a:79:19:42:c8:10 REACHABLE
=====-----=====
arp
Address                  HWtype  HWaddress           Flags Mask            Iface
25.66.200.16             ether   7a:79:19:42:c8:10   C                     ham0
=====-----=====
/home/pi/documenti/config/ip.sh
Connesso a internet. IP: 91.253.70.133
Ecco inoltre alcuni files di configurazione:

/etc/dnsmasq.conf

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interface=wlan0      # Use the require wireless interface - usually wlan0
dhcp-range=192.168.4.3,192.168.4.20,255.255.255.0,24h

/etc/dhcpcd.conf

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# A sample configuration for dhcpcd.
# See dhcpcd.conf(5) for details.

# Allow users of this group to interact with dhcpcd via the control socket.
#controlgroup wheel

# Inform the DHCP server of our hostname for DDNS.
hostname

# Use the hardware address of the interface for the Client ID.
clientid
# or
# Use the same DUID + IAID as set in DHCPv6 for DHCPv4 ClientID as per RFC4361.
# Some non-RFC compliant DHCP servers do not reply with this set.
# In this case, comment out duid and enable clientid above.
#duid

# Persist interface configuration when dhcpcd exits.
persistent

# Rapid commit support.
# Safe to enable by default because it requires the equivalent option set
# on the server to actually work.
option rapid_commit

# A list of options to request from the DHCP server.
option domain_name_servers, domain_name, domain_search, host_name
option classless_static_routes
# Respect the network MTU. This is applied to DHCP routes.
option interface_mtu

# Most distributions have NTP support.
#option ntp_servers

# A ServerID is required by RFC2131.
require dhcp_server_identifier

# Generate SLAAC address using the Hardware Address of the interface
#slaac hwaddr
# OR generate Stable Private IPv6 Addresses based from the DUID
slaac private

# Example static IP configuration:
#interface eth0
#static ip_address=192.168.0.10/24
#static ip6_address=fd51:42f8:caae:d92e::ff/64
#static routers=192.168.0.1
#static domain_name_servers=192.168.0.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:42f8:caae:d92e::1

# It is possible to fall back to a static IP if DHCP fails:
# define static profile
#profile static_eth0
#static ip_address=192.168.1.23/24
#static routers=192.168.1.1
#static domain_name_servers=192.168.1.1

# fallback to static profile on eth0
#interface eth0
#fallback static_eth0

# Blocco wlan0
# Aggiungi denyinterfaces wlan0 e denyinterfaces eth0 alla fine del file
#  (ma sopra ogni altra interface riga aggiunta ) e salva il file.
#  Istruzioni da:
#  https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/access-point.md
# Vedere anche:
#  https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=28&t=245820&p=1502816&hilit=wifi+bridge+buster&sid=e76d055495c78974824de260846c8e6a#p1502816
#denyinterfaces wlan0 wwan0 eth0
#denyinterfaces eth0
#denyinterfaces wwan0

# IP statico per il server
interface wlan0
    static ip_address=192.168.4.2/24
#    nohook wpa_supplicant

interface br0
    static ip_address=192.168.4.1/24
    nohook wpa_supplicant

/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

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# esempio da http://guide.debianizzati.org/index.php/Wireless_Access_Point_(WAP)_personalizzato
# poi sarà personalizzato
# altra guida utile: https://wireless.wiki.kernel.org/en/users/documentation/hostapd

# Wireless interface
interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
bridge=br0
country_code=IT
# Wireless environment
ssid=xxxxxxxx   # nome oscurato
hw_mode=g
channel=5
# 802.11n
wme_enabled=1
ieee80211n=0
ht_capab=[HT40+][RX-STBC1][SMPS-STATIC][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40]
# Authentication and encryption
macaddr_acl=0
auth_algs=1
ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
wpa=2
wpa_passphrase=xxxxxxxx   # password oscurata
wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
wpa_pairwise=TKIP
rsn_pairwise=CCMP
Spero, col vostro di riuscire a far funzionare l'AP.
Grazie per l'attenzione e per l'aiuto che potrete darmi.

Re: Configurare AP Wifi con connessione GSM

Posted: Tue Sep 17, 2019 9:55 am
by ita01
Aggiorno questa discussione perché so scoperto che per condividere la connessione a internet del modem 4G con la rete WiFi, non occorre il bridge.
Ho fatto numerosi tentativi per configurare la rete, ma non ci sono riuscito. Avendo fatto numerose modifiche a diversi files, di cui alcune con dei comandi che non so cosa siano andati a modificare, pochi giorni fa ho pensato di ripartire di nuovo da zero.
Per prima cosa ho collegato il Raspberry alla rete WiFi del mio smartphone, per poter scaricare i pacchetti necessari al resto.
Poi ho rimosso le impostazioni del collegamento alla rete WiFi ed ho impostato il Raspberry come server. Mi sembra che abbia funzionato, perché mi ci collegavo sia col computer che col cellulare.
Poi ho aggiunto la connessione diretta a internet col modem, ed ho iniziato ad avere problemi, perché il server WiFi non è più stabile: mi permette di collegarmi per poco tempo (alcuni minuti, ma a volte anche solo dei secondi) col computer o col cellulare, ma poi il server WiFi smette di funzionare: all'inizio riesco anche a connettermi a internet dal computer sfruttando la connessione del modem, poi si perde questa connessione a internet, ma anche quella al raspberry (non funziona neanche ssh), tuttavia il computer resta collegato al Raspberry.
Essendomi scomodo lavorare col piccolo monitor che ho attaccato al Raspberry, ho configurato anche stavolta Hamachi, che da ieri pomeriggio è in funzione senza problemi.
Vorrei capire perché il WiFi è così instabile e cosa posso fare per sistemarlo.

Per permettervi di aiutarmi vi riporto i files che ho configurato per la mia rete (coi dati personali offuscati):
/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf

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# esempio da http://guide.debianizzati.org/index.php/Wireless_Access_Point_(WAP)_personalizzato
# poi sarà personalizzato
# altra guida utile: https://wireless.wiki.kernel.org/en/users/documentation/hostapd
# altra guida: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/access-point.md

# Wireless interface
interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
country_code=IT
# Wireless environment
ssid=RETEWIFI
hw_mode=g
channel=5
# 802.11n
#wme_enabled=1
wmm_enabled=0
ieee80211n=0
ht_capab=[HT40+][RX-STBC1][SMPS-STATIC][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40]
# Authentication and encryption
macaddr_acl=0
auth_algs=1
ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
wpa=2
wpa_passphrase=PASSWORDRETEWIFI
wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
wpa_pairwise=TKIP
rsn_pairwise=CCMP
/etc/network/interfaces

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# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)

# Please note that this file is written to be used with dhcpcd
# For static IP, consult /etc/dhcpcd.conf and 'man dhcpcd.conf'

# Include files from /etc/network/interfaces.d:
source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d


# Il seguito viene da: https://seravo.fi/2014/create-wireless-access-point-hostapd

# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
hostapd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf
address 192.168.8.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
/etc/dnsmasq.conf

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interface=lo,wlan0
no-dhcp-interface=lo
dhcp-range=192.168.8.20,192.168.8.254,255.255.255.0,12h
/etc/sysctl.conf

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# commenti
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
#il resto è tutto commentato
/etc/rc.local

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#!/bin/sh -e
#
# rc.local
#
# This script is executed at the end of each multiuser runlevel.
# Make sure that the script will "exit 0" on success or any other
# value on error.
#
# In order to enable or disable this script just change the execution
# bits.
#
# By default this script does nothing.

# Print the IP address
_IP=$(hostname -I) || true
if [ "$_IP" ]; then
  printf "My IP address is %s\n" "$_IP"
fi

/home/pi/SIM7600X/sim7600_4G_hat_init
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.8.0/24 ! -d 192.168.8.0/24  -j MASQUERADE
sleep 5
avviarete # qui viene richiamato uno script che avvia la connessione a internet dal modem

exit 0
/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
questo file è vuoto

avviarete

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rete4g
ham-restart
riavvio_remote.it
rete4g

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qmi-network /dev/cdc-wdm0 start
ip link set wwan0 down
echo 'Y' | sudo tee /sys/class/net/wwan0/qmi/raw_ip
ip link set wwan0 up
qmicli -p -d /dev/cdc-wdm0 --device-open-net='net-raw-ip|net-no-qos-header' --wds-start-network="apn='tre.it',ip-type=4" --client-no-release-cid
udhcpc -i wwan0