Selectortone
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Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 9:48 am

I am having no success at booting from a Kingston 240GB SSC.

I have done the following:

- updated to latest software

- updated bootloader to latest stable version: pieeprom-2020-07-16.bin (vcgencmd bootloader_version now reports version is Jul 16 2020)

- copied latest version of Raspberry pi OS (updated today) to SSD using SD Card Copier

rebooted (pi boots successfully from SD card)

When I reboot with SD card removed the pi fails to boot and I get the following message:

usb-MSD boot requires the latest software. Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads

ERROR: 00000044

I would be grateful for some pointers as to what I'm doing wrong - thanks.
-

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thagrol
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:20 am

Unless I've missed an announcement, USB booting on a 4B is still in beta so you'll need the latest beta firmware not the latest stable one.
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fruitoftheloom
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:23 am

Selectortone wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 9:48 am
I am having no success at booting from a Kingston 240GB SSC.

I have done the following:

- updated to latest software

- updated bootloader to latest stable version: pieeprom-2020-07-16.bin (vcgencmd bootloader_version now reports version is Jul 16 2020)

- copied latest version of Raspberry pi OS (updated today) to SSD using SD Card Copier

rebooted (pi boots successfully from SD card)

When I reboot with SD card removed the pi fails to boot and I get the following message:

usb-MSD boot requires the latest software. Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads

ERROR: 00000044

I would be grateful for some pointers as to what I'm doing wrong - thanks.
-

https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentati ... torageboot
Take what I advise as advice not the utopian holy grail, and it is gratis !!

Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:49 am

thagrol wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:20 am
Unless I've missed an announcement, USB booting on a 4B is still in beta so you'll need the latest beta firmware not the latest stable one.
Thanks. I think I have misunderstood comments in the thread announcing USB-MSD boot (this one) which suggested to me that the feature was now stable. I'll try the latest beta.
Last edited by Selectortone on Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:52 am, edited 1 time in total.

Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:50 am


Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 3:00 pm

Well, installing the latest bootloader from the beta directory didn't work. Same error message:

"usb-MSD boot requires the latest software. Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads

ERROR: 00000044"

going to wade through the documentation now.

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HawaiianPi
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 4:36 pm

You should not need any beta software now, but the latest 2020-05-27 RPiOS image was released before USB-MSD boot (the first beta was launched in June 2020), so the image is not directly compatible with USB boot.

Also, both the EEPROM bootloader and bootloader configuration still need to be updated manually.

Additional information about your system could be helpful.
  • Which SSD model are you using?
  • If it's a SATA drive, which USB-SATA adapter or enclosure are you using?
  • What does lsusb && lsusb -t return with the SSD connected to your Pi.
  • Do you have anything else attached to USB or GPIO?
  • What are you using for a power supply?
Some USB-SATA adapters don't play well with Linux, and some SSD models may be too power hungry for the Pi computers. Assuming you have neither of these problems, then this procedure should get you up and running from a USB drive.

Tested on my 4B2, and also my 4B4 which had the older non-USB-MSD bootloader.
  1. Use the Raspberry Pi Imager utility to put Raspberry Pi OS (32-bit) on your SD card.
  2. Boot that card and run through the Welcome to Raspberry Pi configuration script.
  3. While the OS is being updated you'll have some time to kill, so open a terminal and enter the following command:

    Code: Select all

    sudo nano /etc/default/rpi-eeprom-update
    Change FIRMWARE_RELEASE_STATUS="critical" to FIRMWARE_RELEASE_STATUS="stable"
    Save the file with ^x y ENTER (Control+X, answer Y for yes, then hit enter when it asks File Name to Write: ...)
  4. When the System is up to date, hit OK then the Restart button.
  5. After reboot, open a terminal and enter the following command (so you'll have July 16 bootloader with correct configuration):

    Code: Select all

    sudo rpi-eeprom-update -d -f /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/stable/pieeprom-2020-07-16.bin && sudo reboot
  6. Now you are ready to plug in your USB drive and use the SD Card Copier utility to clone your card (make sure you select the New Partition UUIDs option). WARNING! This will erase everything previously on the USB drive!
  7. When that's done, shutdown your Pi4B and unplug the power supply, remove the SD card, then power it back up again.
    It should boot from USB.
  8. Celebrate your success. Good Job! Image

Note that this is using the 2020, July 16 bootloader, which is the latest stable version at the time of this post. If there is a later one you can adjust the filename in the command, or complete this procedure and do another update/full-upgrade after booting your USB drive to get it.

Some enclosures with Norelsys or VIA chips, and most with JMicron chips may not boot without USB storage quirks, but that's not really a fix because it disable UASP, and without that you don't get TRIM (important for SSD performance and longevity, but not needed for HDD).

Currently ASMedia based adapters or enclosures work best with the Pi4, but some may need an ASMedia firmware update to enable TRIM. If you want an adapter that works out of the box with UASP and TRIM, this Eluteng USB 3.0 to SATA-III adapter cable for 2.5" drives works great!

UDEV rules for TRIM with the Eluteng adapter cable.

Code: Select all

# /etc/udev/rules.d/01-unmap-trim.rules
# ASMedia ASM1153E and compatible bridge chips (Eluteng adapters)
ACTION=="add|change", ATTRS{idVendor}=="174c", ATTRS{idProduct}=="55aa", SUBSYSTEM=="scsi_disk", ATTR{provisioning_mode}="unmap"

When you are booting from an SSD you'll want to enable the weekly fstrim timer service.

Code: Select all

sudo systemctl enable fstrim.timer
sudo systemctl start fstrim.timer
sudo systemctl status fstrim.timer
The system will now automatically TRIM the SSD once a week (assuming your adapter is compatible with TRIM).
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thagrol
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 5:05 pm

Guess the USB boot firmware is out of beta then. Strange there doesn't seem to have been an anouncement about that. Maybe when it moves from "stable" to "critical"?

Guess I'll stick with /boot on SD, root on USB for now.
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All advice given is based on my experience. it worked for me, it may not work for you.
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HawaiianPi
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Jul 28, 2020 6:39 pm

thagrol wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 5:05 pm
Guess the USB boot firmware is out of beta then. Strange there doesn't seem to have been an anouncement about that.
It is officially in "stable" now, but the RPiOS image needs to be updated, and there still isn't a burn-n-boot solution, so I imagine there is still a bit of work to do before any announcements are made.

thagrol wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 5:05 pm
Maybe when it moves from "stable" to "critical"?
Assuming that will ever happen. I doubt it's considered an essential or "critical" feature for educational use.

It is, however, quite stable and useful for those who want it, so I see no reason to wait. My 4B2 is booting from a budget 256GB SSD that costs less than the same capacity SanDisk Ultra A1 micro SD card (even including the cost of the USB3-SATA3 adapter cable), and it crushes the SD card's performance.
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Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Jul 29, 2020 12:51 pm

HawaiianPi wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 4:36 pm
You should not need any beta software now, but the latest 2020-05-27 RPiOS image was released before USB-MSD boot (the first beta was launched in June 2020), so the image is not directly compatible with USB boot......
Thank you for taking the time for that detailed post.

To answer your questions:

Which SSD model are you using? It's a Kingston SSDNow A400 240GB SATA 3 Solid State Drive (SA400S37/240G)

If it's a SATA drive, which USB-SATA adapter or enclosure are you using? I've tried two -

1. this no-name cable adaptor from amazon
and
2. this Orico enclosure from Amazon

What does lsusb && lsusb -t return with the SSD connected to your Pi.

It says the no-name cable adaptor has a ASM1051E chip and the Orico enclosure has a Micron JM567

Do you have anything else attached to USB or GPIO?

Keyboard and mouse (official raspberry pi units)

What are you using for a power supply?

Official pi4 psu

I have ordered a microSD to USB 3.0 type A adaptor and am going to clone the microSD card using the pi SD Card copier and see if it will USB boot from that.

Apologies for typos, I'm a pensioner, my eyesight is not so good. I have been trying to get USB-MSD boot working for two weeks now. I ordered a pi desktop starter kit to keep my grey matter stimulated during lockdown. It has certainly done that.

Thanks again for your help.

ColdFire
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Jul 29, 2020 2:45 pm

I'm getting the same error trying to boot from SSD. It may be because I'm using NOOBS. I will try with a new install without NOOBS.

Jiff44
Posts: 38
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 3:01 am

Hi Selectortone,

I can confirm what HawaiianPi said: ATTRS{idVendor}=="174c", ATTRS{idProduct}=="55aa" is working right on a Pi 4 rev.1.2.
Although I've a strange thing: the green LED stays on almost all of the time, just stopping ~1s every 15-40 seconds, blinks hyper-rapidly 7-9 times (too fast to count) and re-lite (does not blink rapidly when I'm reading a video, though), but eh, who cares ;)

With a PNY240GB SSD, hdparm gives me:

Code: Select all

# hdparm -Tt /dev/sda
/dev/sda:
 Timing cached reads:   1612 MB in  2.00 seconds = 806.45 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads: 1098 MB in  3.00 seconds = 365.51 MB/sec
but it can sometimes vary a lot (sometimes 264 MB/sec for disk reads), not sensible while working.

So, if your chipset's the same (which is quite possible, 174c:55aa says "ASM105x"), this is another cause, may be the SSD itself but the first potential culprit is always the power supply - i.e.: I use a RS-50-5 50W/5V (=10A) Mean Well industrial switching power supply with 2x0.75 mm² 20 cm wires directly soldered on the circuit board to make sure there's no connection resistance (I have other needs than the Pi 4 tied to this PSU but it also exist in RS-25-5: 25W/5V (=5A) less big than a big box of matches). Remember that direct socket plugin PSUs are all shits sitting in nice (and expensive) boxes and often deliver much less than 50% of their nominal amps when they get not so hot.

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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 11:45 am

Selectortone wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 3:00 pm
Well, installing the latest bootloader from the beta directory didn't work. Same error message:

"usb-MSD boot requires the latest software. Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads

ERROR: 00000044"

going to wade through the documentation now.
A UART capture or a screenshot would add useful context to the error messages.
Edit: The 0x44 is the string version of 4-long 4-short error patterns which just means no GPU firmware was found

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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 11:53 am

thagrol wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:20 am
Unless I've missed an announcement, USB booting on a 4B is still in beta so you'll need the latest beta firmware not the latest stable one.
USB boot requires more than just the bootloader so whilst a stable release of the bootloader which supports MSD has been made the overall feature should be considered beta. Hopefully, it won't be too long until the next Raspberry Pi OS which will have the updated firmware and Linux patches. I think that would be a good point to say that this is officially supported and push out USB MSD support as a critical update i.e. auto update for everyone.
https://github.com/raspberrypi/rpi-eepr ... eleases.md

The long tail of bugs / quirks for random USB devices will continue to be addressed via the normal beta->stable release.

Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 12:33 pm

timg236 wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 11:45 am

A UART capture or a screenshot would add useful context to the error messages.
Edit: The 0x44 is the string version of 4-long 4-short error patterns which just means no GPU firmware was found
Here's a screenshot:

Image

hippy
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 12:43 pm

Selectortone wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 3:00 pm
"usb-MSD boot requires the latest software. Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads
ERROR: 00000044"
Or more completely, as per your screen shot ...

recover4.elf: is not compatible
USB-MSD boot requires newer software.
Get the latest software from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads
ERROR: 00000044

The 'recover4.elf' on whatever you are booting appears to be outdated. An updated version of that and other firmware files is what the 'latest software' provides. - :oops:
Last edited by hippy on Thu Jul 30, 2020 12:47 pm, edited 2 times in total.

timg236
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 12:46 pm

recover4.elf indicates NOOBS and NOOBS does not currently support USB MSD.

Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Thu Jul 30, 2020 2:21 pm

Success!

I tried the 64-bit OS and it is working.

- Installed and updated Raspberry Pi OS (64 bit) beta test version onto SD card and updated/full-upgraded

- Used SD card copier to copy SD card to SSD

- Removed SD card and rebooted.

First attempt took over 15 minutes to boot. The SSD was mounted in an ORICO USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Enclosure Caddy for 2.5 Inch SATA III HDD/SSD.

Shut down and tried the SSD connected via a USB 3.0 to SATA Adapter Cable (no name but identical to the Eluteng one that is reported to work). This time the OS booted up in 16 seconds, much faster than SD card.

So.......

what worked for me was

- a Kingston SSDNow A400 240GB SATA 3 SSD connected via an Eluteng USB 3.0 to SATA 3 Adapter cable

- bootloader firmware update

- 64-bit OS installed to SD card and updated

- SD Card copied to SSD using SD card copier.

Woohoo. One up to the old guy. (...and yes, I did remove the sd card!)



-

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HawaiianPi
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Sat Aug 01, 2020 2:25 am

Selectortone wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 2:21 pm
First attempt took over 15 minutes to boot. The SSD was mounted in an ORICO USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Enclosure Caddy for 2.5 Inch SATA III HDD/SSD.
That's likely from the JMicron chip not properly supporting UAS and taking far too long to reply to UAS command requests. They are somewhat infamous for that. Adding USB storage quirks can sort-of fix that. Basically, the quirks disable UAS and force USB Mass Storage protocol, which gets that chip working at USB 3.0 speed, but it also disables TRIM, and that is important for SSD performance and longevity.

So the ORICO/JMicron enclosure (with quirks) could still be useful for a hard drive, but it's not a great option for SSD. I have the same enclosure with a Norelsys chip, and that one doesn't work with UAS/TRIM either. Too bad, it's a cool looking enclosure. I wonder what bridge chip their USB-C version uses?

Selectortone wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 12:51 pm
What does lsusb && lsusb -t return with the SSD connected to your Pi.

It says the no-name cable adaptor has a ASM1051E chip and the Orico enclosure has a Micron JM567
When asked a question like that, it's best to post the actual output, as there are additional details that could be helpful.

Glad you got it working. Good Job!

Now you'll want to create UDEV rules and enable the fstrim.timer service. To help you with that I'd need the VID:PID of your ASmedia adapter cable (which would have been in the lsusb output). If it happens to be 174c:55aa then you can follow the directions in my post above.

After you have created the UDEV rules and rebooted you can test if TRIM is working with sudo fstrim / --verbose which should return the amount trimmed. If you get an error or message saying that TRIM is not supported for that device, the ASMedia chip needs a firmware update.

Here is the Amazon UK link to the Eluteng adapter: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B06XCV1W97

Your cable looks like a generic version of the Eluteng, which does support UAS and TRIM in Raspbian/RPiOS, so it's probably okay.
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Selectortone
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Sat Aug 01, 2020 4:02 pm

HawaiianPi wrote:
Sat Aug 01, 2020 2:25 am
Selectortone wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 2:21 pm
First attempt took over 15 minutes to boot. The SSD was mounted in an ORICO USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Enclosure Caddy for 2.5 Inch SATA III HDD/SSD.
That's likely from the JMicron chip not properly supporting UAS and taking far too long to reply to UAS command requests. They are somewhat infamous for that. Adding USB storage quirks can sort-of fix that. Basically, the quirks disable UAS and force USB Mass Storage protocol, which gets that chip working at USB 3.0 speed, but it also disables TRIM, and that is important for SSD performance and longevity.

So the ORICO/JMicron enclosure (with quirks) could still be useful for a hard drive, but it's not a great option for SSD. I have the same enclosure with a Norelsys chip, and that one doesn't work with UAS/TRIM either. Too bad, it's a cool looking enclosure. I wonder what bridge chip their USB-C version uses?

Selectortone wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 12:51 pm
What does lsusb && lsusb -t return with the SSD connected to your Pi.

It says the no-name cable adaptor has a ASM1051E chip and the Orico enclosure has a Micron JM567
When asked a question like that, it's best to post the actual output, as there are additional details that could be helpful.

Glad you got it working. Good Job!

Now you'll want to create UDEV rules and enable the fstrim.timer service. To help you with that I'd need the VID:PID of your ASmedia adapter cable (which would have been in the lsusb output). If it happens to be 174c:55aa then you can follow the directions in my post above.

After you have created the UDEV rules and rebooted you can test if TRIM is working with sudo fstrim / --verbose which should return the amount trimmed. If you get an error or message saying that TRIM is not supported for that device, the ASMedia chip needs a firmware update.

Here is the Amazon UK link to the Eluteng adapter: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B06XCV1W97

Your cable looks like a generic version of the Eluteng, which does support UAS and TRIM in Raspbian/RPiOS, so it's probably okay.
I followed the directions in your previous post and have now got my pi booting from SSD with the 32-bit OS.

Thanks so much for your help. This has been an excellent way to get familiar with the pi. I do have one that I bought ages ago (I think its a model 3B) that has been happily running my Kodi system for years, but I've never really looked under the hood.

novaavianna
Posts: 10
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Tue Aug 04, 2020 10:30 am

Newbie here. I'm very interested in getting my first Pi booting from an SSD. The two adapters I'm looking at are:

StarTech USB3S2SAT3CB
StarTech USB312SAT3CB

In combination with:

Crucial MX500
Kingston A400

Does anyone of you helpful people have opinions on these? Do I need to be concerned with power draw on either of these SSDs? They look to be within spec.

Thank you very much for any input

bettsr67
Posts: 6
Joined: Fri Apr 06, 2018 3:25 pm

Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Aug 05, 2020 2:05 am

Selectortone wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 2:21 pm
Success!

I tried the 64-bit OS and it is working.

- Installed and updated Raspberry Pi OS (64 bit) beta test version onto SD card and updated/full-upgraded

- Used SD card copier to copy SD card to SSD

- Removed SD card and rebooted.

First attempt took over 15 minutes to boot. The SSD was mounted in an ORICO USB 3.0 External Hard Drive Enclosure Caddy for 2.5 Inch SATA III HDD/SSD.

Shut down and tried the SSD connected via a USB 3.0 to SATA Adapter Cable (no name but identical to the Eluteng one that is reported to work). This time the OS booted up in 16 seconds, much faster than SD card.

So.......

what worked for me was

- a Kingston SSDNow A400 240GB SATA 3 SSD connected via an Eluteng USB 3.0 to SATA 3 Adapter cable

- bootloader firmware update

- 64-bit OS installed to SD card and updated

- SD Card copied to SSD using SD card copier.

Woohoo. One up to the old guy. (...and yes, I did remove the sd card!)



-
Thank you this worked perfect on my PI4 8 gig, Raspberry OS 32-bit.

ColdFire
Posts: 4
Joined: Wed Jul 29, 2020 2:37 pm

Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Aug 05, 2020 3:05 pm

novaavianna wrote:
Tue Aug 04, 2020 10:30 am
Newbie here. I'm very interested in getting my first Pi booting from an SSD. The two adapters I'm looking at are:

StarTech USB3S2SAT3CB
StarTech USB312SAT3CB

In combination with:

Crucial MX500
Kingston A400

Does anyone of you helpful people have opinions on these? Do I need to be concerned with power draw on either of these SSDs? They look to be within spec.

Thank you very much for any input
I'm getting great performance with a StarTech USB3S2SAT3CB and 250GB MX500. No power issues.

novaavianna
Posts: 10
Joined: Mon Aug 03, 2020 8:10 pm

Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Aug 05, 2020 8:07 pm

@ColdFire - thanks so much for the info - really sets the mind at ease for a newbie :)

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HawaiianPi
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Re: Trying to get SSD boot working on pi4

Wed Aug 05, 2020 8:52 pm

ColdFire wrote:
Wed Aug 05, 2020 3:05 pm
I'm getting great performance with a StarTech USB3S2SAT3CB and 250GB MX500. No power issues.
novaavianna wrote:
Wed Aug 05, 2020 8:07 pm
@ColdFire - thanks so much for the info - really sets the mind at ease for a newbie :)
You also need to know of those adapters support UASP and TRIM in Raspbian/RPiOS?

Some adapters support UASP but not TRIM, and TRIM is important for SSD.

The Eluteng USB 3.0 to SATA-III adapter cable for 2.5" drives I recommended above does.

I've used a 500GB Crucial MX500 SSD on my system without any power issues, in spite if its high power spec's (5V/1.7A). I even ran my system from dual SSD for awhile as an experiment, and one of the drives was the MX500. I had the root file system on a 256GB SP A55 SSD and /home on the MX500, and ran the system like that for awhile with no problems. I even spent a few days testing it with the older 5.1V/2.5A microUSB PSU with a Volutz USB-C adapter, and that worked as well.

I often wonder about Crucial's power ratings, because they seem really inaccurate (in a good way). The SATA MX500 model doesn't seem to draw anywhere near it's 5V/1.7A current rating, and the NVMe version has the same 1.7A rating, only at 3.3V. :?

I've tested a number of different SSD makes and models on my Pi4B, and the only one that seemed a bit power hungry was a Kingston UV500, and even that one worked fine on its own (I could not clone one SSD to another if one of the drives was that Kingston). The fastest drive was a Samsung 850 EVO (MX500 was the second fastest), but even the budget Silicon Power A55 SSD completely blows away any SD card's performance.
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lots of pop-ups, and where is that annoying music coming from?

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